Portuguese books and magazines

Masters and PhD thesis

Portuguese Meetings Internacional Meetings


Papers publishered in internacional books and magazines


Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in education, 5(1), 7-74. (download)

This article is a review of the literature on classroom formative assessment. Several studies show firm evidence that innovations designed to strengthen the frequent feedback that students receive about their learning yield substantial learning gains. The perceptions of students and their role in self-assessment are considered alongside analysis of' the strategies used by teachers and the formative strategies incorporated in such systemic approaches as mastery learning. Follows a more detailed and theoretical analysis of the nature of feedback, which provides a basis for a discussion of the development of theoretical models for formative assessment and of the prospects for the improvement of practice.
: Assessment; formative assessment; self-assessment; feedback; assessment tools; lective practices.

Hattie, J. and Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77 (1), 81-112. (download).

Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
Keywords: feedback; assessment; pupils and teacher learning.

Perrenoud, P. (2005) Em direcção a uma antropologia de questionamento: Disponível em http://www.unige. ch/fapse/SSE/teachers/perrenoud/ (download)

In this text the author argues that it is impossible to look at the questioning of a naive way: it always involves a trial. The author characterizes the environments in society where people practice the questioning and warns that it (the questioning) be connected to the culture of each one.  He starts to approach the questioning in a school where the explicit factors that might influence, including social inequality.  Finally, Perrenoud summarizes the importance of enhancing awareness of the teacher with regard to the question: the need for a reflective attitude of team work and great perseverance in the classroom.
: Questioning; learning; professional performance; social rules; cultural differences.

Rust, C.; Price, M. & O’Donovan, B. (2003). Improving students’ learning by developing their understanding of assessment criteria and process. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(2), 147-164. (download)

This paper reports the findings of a two-year research project focused on developing students’ understanding of assessment criteria and the assessment process through a structured intervention involving both tacit and explicit knowledge transfer methods. The nature of the intervention is explained in detail, and the outcomes are analyzed and discussed. The conclusions drawn from the evidence are that student learning can be improved significantly through such an intervention, and that this improvement may last over time and be transferable, at least within similar contexts. This work is a development within a longer and ongoing research project into criterion-referenced assessment tools and processes which has been undertaken in the pursuit of a conceptually sound and functional assessment framework that would promote and encourage common standards of assessment; that project is also summarized.
Keywords: Assessment; assessment criteria; criterion-referenced assessment tools; tacit knowledge.

Santos, L. & Pinto, L. (2009). Self-regulating assessment in Mathematics: saying before doing. Bolema, 33, 51-68. (download).


This article reports on a study involving secondary students in mathematics, where formative assessment was introduced throughout the school year. In this teaching strategy students had to interpret a task, write the resolution strategy and then solve it. The teacher gave feedback to the pupils on their outcomes, changing on the feedback over the year. An interpretive methodology was chosen, using observation, with audio recording and document analysis of students' work, logbooks and teacher reflections. The study pointed out that this strategy contributes to the learning process, helps students to reformulate incorrect reasoning and presents persistent errors and misunderstandings. It is the opposite of standard practice, in that it raises difficulties for the students and challenges the teacher to reflect and interact with others.

Keywords: Mathematics education; self-regulated assessment; mathematics learning; assessment interaction; formative assessment.


Santos, L. (2004). La evaluación del aprendizaje en matemáticas: orientaciones y retos. In J. Giménez; L. Santos & J. P. Ponte (Coords.), La actividad matemática en el aula (pp. 157-168). Barcelona: Editorial Graó. (versão portuguesa)  (download)  

This article discusses the assessment concept while a regulation process of the learning, from the current guidelines curricular analysis for the teaching and learning of the Mathematics. It presents several ways of this assessment kind that lead to the practice. In particular, two situations are explored: one of the Mathematics classroom daily life and other one, more formal, made real through the development of an assessment alternative tools, the test, in two phases. These examples, though different, they allow to identify the same characteristics and challenges that are put to the different intervenient ones in the process - teacher and pupils. Finally, it's discussed the teacher and pupil’s role in this process, and a comparative analysis is done with the nature summative assessment.
Keywords: Guidance on mathematics pedagogy; assessment; regulated assessment; assessment alternative tools; the teacher's role; the pupil's rule.